Tag: history

History question!!!!!!!!?

Question by Asfjhydasaf: History question!!!!!!!!?
What was the Native Americans’ reaction to Spanish colonization?

Please help 🙁

Best answer:

Answer by Vanessa
Cultural impact
Indigenous peoples (Native Americans)
Main articles: Indigenous peoples of the Americas and Native Americans in the United States

The cultures and populations of the indigenous peoples of the Americas were changed by the Spanish assumption and colonization of their lands.

Before the arrival of Columbus, in Hispaniola the indigenous Taíno pre-contact population of several hundred thousand declined to sixty thousand by 1509. Although population estimates vary, Father Bartolomé de las Casas, the “Defender of the Indians” estimated there were 6 million (6,000,000) Taíno and Arawak in the Caribbean at the time of Columbus’s arrival in 1492.[citation needed]

The population of the Native Amerindian population in Mexico declined by an estimated 90% (reduced to 1 – 2.5 million people) by the early 17th century. In Peru the indigenous Amerindian pre-contact population of around 6.5 million declined to 1 million by the early 17th century.[citation needed]

Of the history of the indigenous population of California, Sherburne F. Cook (1896–1974) was the most painstakingly careful researcher. From decades of research he made estimates for the pre-contact population and the history of demographic decline during the Spanish and post Spanish periods. According to Cook, the indigenous Californian population at first contact, in 1769, was about 310,000 and had dropped to 25,000 by 1910. The vast majority of the decline happened during the Mexican and U.S.A periods of Californian history (1821–1910), with the most dramatic collapse (200,000 to 25,000) occurring in the U.S.A period (1846–1910).[8][9][10]
Missionary effort
Main article: Spanish missions in the Americas

The Spaniards were committed, by Vatican decree, to convert their New World indigenous subjects to Catholicism. However, often initial efforts were questionably successful, as the indigenous people added Catholicism into their longstanding traditional ceremonies and beliefs. The many native expressions, forms, practices, and items of art could be considered idolatry and prohibited or destroyed by Spanish missionaries, military, and civilians. This included religious items, sculptures, and jewelry made of gold or silver, which were melted down before shipment to Spain.

Though the Spanish did not impose their language to the extent they did their religion, some indigenous languages of the Americas evolved into replacement with Spanish, and lost to present day tribal members. When more efficient they did evangelize in native languages. Introduced writing systems to the Quechua, Nahuatl and Guarani peoples may have contributed to their expansion.

i got this info from wikipedia hope i helped :))

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Mother of Pearl Silver Jewelry History

Like Amber, Mother of Pearl is organic, but unlike any other gemstone it forms locked away within its creator: the mollusk.

15th Century Europeans, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, gave Mother of Pearl its name. However the beauty of Mother of Pearl, birthstone of June, has been used in the decoration of precious jewels and ornaments as far back as 3000 years before the birth of Christ.


Mother of Pearl: Crystals of calcium carbonate and conchiolin, secreted by the living organism within a mollusk, which build up and solidify coating the inner surface of the shell. Also known as Nacre (na.ker): from the Arabic word ‘Naqqarah’ meaning shell.

Mother Of Pearl In Mesopotamia

In the 1920s, a series of tombs were excavated to the east of the site of Babylon in the Middle East.

The tombs were of Sumerian royalty from ancient Mesopotamia and yielded a treasure trove of amulets, rings and necklaces made of gold, silver, ivory, amethyst, carnelian, lapis and other semi-precious gemstones. However, it was the unearthing of several beautiful wooden ornaments and musical instruments inlaid with Mother of Pearl, that illustrated just how sophisticated this ancient culture actually was.

The Silver lyre of Ur, found in one of the graves in the Royal Cemetery, dates back to between 2600 and 2400 B.C. The Silver lyre, ancestor to the modern harp, was found in the Great Death Pit accompanied by 70 men and women who had been buried with their Queen. Miraculously well persevered, the lyre was entirely covered in sheet silver and inlaid with Mother of Pearl. The silver cow’s head decorating the front has inlaid eyes of shell and lapis lazuli, and the edges, borders and plaques of the sound box are inlaid with Mother of Pearl.

Such instruments were important parts of rituals in the royal courts and temples. There are more representations of lyre players inlaid in Mother of Pearl on the infamous Standard of Ur, a wooden box believed to recount the story of Ur.

The method the Sumerian artisans used to decorate wooden objects was to cut a design from the shell, cut the same form out of the wooden setting, and to fill the spaces and setting of the engraving with bitumen, which after acting as glue hardened forming the background. Animal scenes, inlayed with Mother of Pearl shell and colored gemstones such as lapis or carnelian, were particularly popular motifs used in such decoration. This method of inlay was popular throughout Asia and Asia-Minor up to the time of the Ottoman Empire, and although refined the same method is still practiced by the artisans of Turkey and Egypt today.

Mother Of Pearl In Asia

In Asia, centuries before the birth of Christ, the Chinese learned that beads or tiny figures of deities slipped between the soft mantle and the shell of a living mollusk soon became coated with Mother of Pearl. These beads and carvings were then taken to the temples and offered to the gods in the hope that they would bestow good luck upon the donor. Mother of Pearl, like jade, soon held a position of high status in Chinese society and became interlinked with stories of gods and mythical creatures.

One such story is the tale told in the Tao classic The History of The Great Light, written by Huai-Nan-Tzu during the Han dynasty at the beginning of the first millennia A.D. In the book there are eight stories of eight mortals who, through their good deeds, were rewarded with everlasting life. The eighth of these stories tells the tale of Ho-Hsien-Ku, who was instructed in a vision that if she ate Mother of Pearl she would gradually become immortal. She did as the vision instructed, living in the mountains and eventually dispensing with mortal food. Ho-Hsien-Ku started to float from peak to peak becoming more and more ethereal, finally attaining her quest she was renamed The Immortal Maiden symbolized in the Tao philosophy by the lotus flower.

During the Confuciusan Tang dynasty, as Buddhism spread to Korea and Japan, China absorbed and unified a vast territory that had formerly been divided into North and South China. The Tang dynasty, lasting from 600 A.D. to 900 A.D., was a period of widespread prosperity and trade that stretched from inner Asia to the archipelagos of South East Asia. With the promise of great wealth, many mariners and merchants from all over the Pacific were attracted to China, bringing with them precious cargos of Pearls, Mother of Pearl and many other precious and semi-precious gemstones.

In ancient China Mother of Pearl, apart from finding its way into rings and necklaces, was used in profusion as a decorative inlay in ornaments such as vanity mirrors and brushes, and in later centuries would feature heavily as an inlay in Chinese and Korean furniture. Interestingly, the Chinese also used Mother of Pearl in medicine, prescribing it for over a thousand years as an aid to reduce heart palpitations, dizziness, and high blood pressure.

Mother Of Pearl In Mesoamerica

In 8th Century Mesoamerica there existed an ancient civilization called the Toltecs. Ancestors to the Aztecs, they were feared and revered respectively for their military prowess and artistic culture. The Toltec had widespread influences from the Mayan populations in Guatemala to the Anasazi Indians in Arizona. Archeological excavations as far inland as Chaco Canyon, land marked by the towering Fajada Butte and its mysterious Sun Dagger rock carvings, have revealed Toltec treasures of ornamental jewelry and sculptures inlaid with Mother of Pearl from as far away as the Pacific Rim.

Still to this day the descendants of the Toltecs, the Yaqui Indians of Mexico immortalized in the shamanic tales of Carlos Castaneda, wear a necklace called the Hoporosim. The necklace is made of Mother of Pearl and is believed to provide the wearer with protection from evil.

In America’s Southwest of today, Navajo, Pueblo, and Hopi native American silversmiths, trained in age-old lapidary techniques fuse the ancient into contemporary designs using sterling silver, gold, lapis lazuli, pearl, fire opal, coral and of course Mother of Pearl.

Mother Of Pearl In The Pacific

By the 1500s Europe’s growing demand for Mother of Pearl used in gold and silver rings, necklaces, brooches and buttons had all but depleted the supplies of Mother of Pearl in the Persian Gulf. However the nobility of Europe were already taken with a new species of pearl producing oyster heralding from the Pacific: Pinctada Margaritifera, renowned for its spectacular gray to black color and large size it surpassed the beauty of any of its counterparts found in the Persian Gulf. And with the opening of new trade routes throughout the world, particularly to Asia, the Pacific witnessed a rush of European traders and explorers eager to profit from its wealth of Mother of Pearl.

In 1568 the Solomon Islands, known as The Pearl of the Pacific, were discovered by the Spanish explorer, Alvaro de Mendana. On discovering the Islands rich bounty of gold and Mother of Pearl he gave the archipelago its current name, believing that he had found the mythical source of King Solomon’s mines. However, it was in fact the Austronesians, a Neolithic people from South-East Asia, who had first settled the Solomon Islands more than 4000 years prior to Mendana’s arrival. Evidence of their great wealth of Mother of Pearl can be seen in the inlay appearing in many of their tribal shields and statues of gods and spirits.

From Tahiti to Bora Bora the Polynesian archipelago stretches out to the size of Western Europe. The Islands were first discovered by the European Magellan, and again in 1595 by Mendana. But long before their arrival Mother of Pearl and Pearl had already attained a god-like status.

In Polynesian lore, the iridescence of Mother of Pearl is attributed to the spirits of coral and sand, Okana and Uaro, who as legend has it adorned the Tahitian oysters in glistening cloaks covered in all the colors of the fish of the ocean. It is also said that Oro, the Polynesian god of peace and fertility, came down to earth and offered a special pearl called Te Ufi, the black pearl, to the beautiful princess of Bora Bora as a sign of his love. But by the middle of the 18th Century with Europe’s lust for Mother of Pearl the Pacific Islands had been practically stripped bear of its oysters, and with its disappearance the stories passed into legend.

However, in 1880 France gained control of Tahiti, what is now called French Polynesia, and actions were taken to restrict the plundering of the seabed. Other countries followed suite and by the 1900s, with the spread of western civilization, restrictions were imposed on the fishing industry throughout the Pacific, and the world had to look elsewhere in their search for Mother of Pearl.

European exploration of the Pacific Islands in search of Mother of Pearl continued, and in the 1920s it was discovered for the last time on a remote Island of the New Hebrides. But when explorers Sperry and Evans stumbled upon the use of Mother of Pearl, it was far from what they expected. They wrote, In the opposite corner of the central hut a line of mummies were placed like a barricade…Bushy mops of hair still clung to the heads, and their faces wore masks of clay, with huge eyes of Mother of Pearl that shone through the gloom staring at us with an uncanny effect. In fact the mummies weren’t ancestral members of the tribe, but were the bodies of a rival tribe…of cannibals!

In 19th Century America, where Mother of Pearl had been previously used as an inlay in furniture it found a new use in fashion, as buttons. Iowa became the center of the trade, shipping billions of iridescent fasteners until World War II, when newly invented plastics undercut the prices of Mother of Pearl buttons, all but driving them out of the market.

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A Brief History in Religious Jewelry

Jewelry is really a broad term that describes any ornamental adornment on the body. It includes toe rings to tiaras and everything in between. Jewelry has been used in each culture throughout history and in a lot of various ways. While in our culture today jewelry serves mostly an aesthetic purpose, jewelry can serve other functions also. Jewelry is employed to represent social or official rank, age, marital status, and tribal affinity. Additionally, jewelry serves as emblems of religious, social, and political affiliation. In fact, one of the extremely first uses of jewelry was to show religious affiliation. The following are the principal cultures that began the use of religious jewelry along with the common symbols and uses of their jewelry.

Egyptian Religious Jewelry

Religious jewelry in Ancient Egypt was quite symbolic. Some typical symbols in Ancient Egyptian religious jewelry consist of the scarab (beetle), lotus, serpent, falcon, and also the eye. The scarab is a symbol for great luck and resurrection while the “Eye of the Horus” represents healing. A common symbol of the time referred to as the “Ankh” is meant to represent eternal life. Religious jewelry was extravagant, consisting of gold and semi-precious stones and had been worn by men and women alike. When the Roman Era arrived, Egyptian religious jewelry was made of cheaper supplies and more Christian symbols were used. When Islam arrived in Egypt men were forbidden to wear gold jewelry. At this time silver jewelry became a lot more well-known in religious jewelry in Egypt. Religious jewelry is still widely employed in Egypt, but doesn’t have the exact same extravagance as the Ancient Egyptian religious jewelry.

Roman Christianity and Religious Jewelry

Art and architecture thrived when St.

Constantine Christianized the Roman Empire. At this time various common symbols were developed which are still utilized in Christian art and jewelry. These symbols consist of the cross, the rosary, and the Christian fish charm. The cross is really a symbol of God’s love and a reminder of Christ’s suffering. Rosary beads are prayer beads that began inside the Roman Christian world but are now employed predominately by the Catholic Church (officially accepted by the Catholic Church during the rosary approbation in 1520). Rosary beads are also used inside the Islam and Buddhist faith. The Christian fish charm came about when early Christians would make an acronym with the Greek word for fish, “ichthys,” Iesous Christos Theou Yios Soter (Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior). This symbol attracted less attention to the persecuted Christians. The Christian charm remains quite popular today.

Native American Jewelry

Native American religious jewelry was a symbol for nature, played a role in religious ceremonies, and represented status. Natural supplies were used in their jewelry such as feathers along with minerals such as turquoise and metals like silver. These natural supplies had been a reminder of the Earth around them. Throughout healing ceremonies and harvest rituals, the people would take care to wear specific kinds of religious jewelry that had been the right color, made of the proper materials, and representing the right symbol for that event. The jewelry which is worn by an individual is representative of the various stages of life an individual has entered into. In numerous tribes adolescents are initiated into adulthood when they obtain the spiritual totem consisting of shells, beads, or symbols from nature. Native American religious jewelry was also given to ladies after there 1st menses and to newly married couples. Religious jewelry has played a considerable role in Native American culture.

Simply because our culture right now uses jewelry mostly for decorative purposes we often forget the roots of jewelry and how, to some cultures, it can have a deeper spiritual meaning. Recognizing the importance of this religious jewelry in other cultures allows us to see the greater symbolic uses that jewelry can be employed for.

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Join a Fun Craft Beads are Rich in History and Inspire Community

There are few women who don’t own some sort of bead jewelry.  As a craft, beads have a rich and diverse history, and have long been known as a community activity.  Whether it is a group of women in Africa working together to create the magnificent decorative necklaces they wear for dances and celebrations or Indian women stringing together prayer beads or teen groups meeting at an American bead store, there is something very powerful in stringing beads together with friends.

100,000 Years of Tradition

We have no way of knowing exactly when in human history someone decided to string something on a piece of sinew or grass and create the first necklace.  We do know that the oldest known beads to date were made of small shells in the Middle East approximately 100,000 years ago.  There aren’t many crafts you can enjoy while saying you are following a tradition that long; beading is the only one we know of so far.

Bringing the Community Together

Because beading requires the crafter to sit for a period of time, it is natural to work together.  While it is possible today to get predrilled, formed beads of every size and color, it wasn’t always the case.  Learning how to drill a bead properly, how to make or paint one, and how to create a pattern that has a specific meaning to your people involved passing traditions from one generation to another.  Sharing such knowledge builds community whether it is by intent or by chance.

Today, beading communities have formed all over the world, including many online.  This allows for the exchange of ideas and beads in ways that have never happened before.  There is a great deal of history to be learned from each beading community, and there is also much to be said for the global connection being built.

Bringing the World Home

One of the most intriguing aspects of beading is the fact that you can easily find beads from all over the planet online.  Jewelry supply websites carry materials from literally every place around the globe.  You can just as easily pick up Balinese silver beads as Afghani lapis or Cinnabar beads from China.  Beading is a truly international experience if you desire it to be.

Perhaps the best thing about beading is that you can take it with you anywhere and find others doing it too.  When it comes to a popular hand craft, beads are at the top of the heap.

jewelry making kits won’t solve all of your jewelry making dilemmas, but they are a practical way to get a specific result.  The more advanced the artisan is, the less likely they are to use kits.  But for the beginner, they are a perfect introduction into the fun world of jewelry design an materials.


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History of jewelry

Jewelry or more commonly spelt as jewelry in American context is defined as a form of personal adornment, manifesting itself. The common item regarded as jewelry may include necklaces, rings, brooches, earrings and bracelets. Jewelry may be forged or manufactured from  almost any material which may provide a shinny or glossy look, usually which cover the categories of gemstones, precious metals or in some historic cases shells are also been used. Factors affecting the choice of materials include the cultural differences which govern the ethical values in a society and second most important concern is the availability of the materials. Jewelry may be appreciated because of its material properties, its patterns or for meaningful symbols. Jewelry differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to look appealing. Items such as belts and handbags are considered to be accessories rather than jewelry.

The word jewelry is derivation from the word jewel, with French origins which was Anglicized from the Old French word “jouel” circa the 13th century.

However the honor is not of French further more tracing leads back to the Latin word “jocale”, meaning plaything. It might seem comical that the most important and expensive item in today’s world may be regarded as form of play item in early days of invention. Jewelry is one of the oldest forms of body adornment; recently-found 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells are thought to be the oldest known jewelry.

Jewelry is sometimes but more properly is regarded as a way of storing wealth, it is seemed also a proper medium of securing future resources as gold is a major component of jewelry items and it keeps rising and might also possess some minimal functionality, such as holding a garment together or keeping hair in place. It has from very early times been regarded as a form of personal adornment. The first pieces of jewelry were made from natural materials, such as bone, animal teeth, shell, wood and carved stone. Some jewelry throughout the ages may have specifically been as an indication of a social group. More exotic jewelry is often for wealthier people, with its rarity increasing its value. Due to its personal nature and its indication of social class, some cultures established traditions of burying the dead with their jewelry.

Jewelry has been associated with nearly every body part since its invention from the historic times so a person has a choice of wearing accessories, from head to toe hairpins to toe rings and many more types of jewelry. Jewelry is also regarded as a symbol of quality, high-quality jewelry is made with gemstones and precious metals, such as silver or gold, there is also a growing demand for art jewelry where design and creativity is prized above material value. In addition, there is the less costly costume jewelry, made from lower value materials and mass-produced. Other variations include wire sculpture (wrap) jewelry, using anything from base metal wire with rock tumbled stone to precious metals and precious gemstones.

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History Of Sterling Jewelry

A high-school friend of mine was obsessed with sterling silver, and I didn’t understand it until I learned that sterling silver jewelry is just amazing for the price. Sterling silver is a precious metal, but it is generally much more affordable than white gold and platinum. Jewelry made of sterling silver is perfect for your collection of fashion accessories, and silver jewelry can also be found in fine jewelry categories, including wedding jewelry. Sterling jewelry will delight you with its fantastic shine and long-lasting wear. Look to our facts about the history of sterling jewelry to learn more about this beautiful metal before shopping.
All about Sterling Jewelry:


Sterling commerce: Sterling alloy appeared on the scene in the 12th century, originating in Europe. It was used to make coins and buy goods for many centuries throughout Europe, particularly in the area where modern Germany is located. It’s easy to see why silver was considered the perfect metal to create coins when you take notice of its luster.

On the table: Sterling silver jewelry’s ancestors are flatware and tea services. These items were very popular from 1840 to 1940. Some sociologists speculate that the silver flatware craze lead to more extravagant dining practices around the turn of the century. You simply had to have a sterling cheese knife for your cheese course! Goblets, napkin rings and candelabras adorned the tables of the very wealthy.

Fashion and beauty: Sterling silver quickly made it to more private rooms in the home, adorning mirrors, brushes and perfume bottles. It was only a matter of time until sterling silver jewelry became popular. Some jewelry of the Art Nouveau period (1890 to 1905) was made of silver, and the Art Deco period during the 1920s was filled with sterling jewelry. Of course, everything silver was very popular during the 1950s. You had to have a silver toaster and gleaming chrome details on your car, as well as a collection of lovely silver cocktail rings.

Modern jewelry: Sterling jewelry has never really faded from fashion, and today it is more popular than ever before. Sterling silver jewelry satisfies our need for beautiful things and an abundant savings account. Sterling silver has even made it into the fine jewelry and designer jewelry categories. Many brides are looking to sterling silver for engagement rings and wedding day jewelry. Sterling jewelry is destined to be a favorite for many more centuries.

Maegan writes product content guides and articles.

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An Introduction Of Beads Jewelry?s History

There are a million kinds of beads and just as many ways to use them. The art of beading has recently gained popularity. There are bead shops, classes, magazines, books and websites springing up all over the place. People of all ages are enjoying beads and beading. Here we have an overview of beading that show types of beads available and simple tools of using to make jewelry. Hopefully, it will have an inspiration to explore the many uses of beads in which they are not just for jewelry. Beads are used in many art forms, example are bead weaving, bead crochet, bead wire crafts and bead embroidery. With the variety of beads available for jewelry, (such as glass costume jewelry, pearl beads costume jewelry) you can really personalize your beadwork, Just pick the colors, the shapes, the textures and the style. It is all about what for yourself or makes some for gifts.

However, it is quite an interesting matter to have some knowledge in regarding of the history of beads.

No matter what your age, beads have been around longer than you have. Archeologists have found beads approximately 40,000 years old and people all around the world have used beads for many purposes. Some uses are spiritual. Beads have also been used as money, as symbols of wealth and for personal adornment.

People of early civilizations made beads from locally available materials. These materials included bone, wood, seeds, stones, and shells. Different beads were created in different parts of the world. As people began to travel to other areas, the materials and techniques for beading making traveled with them. Beads became a valuable trade item. The glass bead plays an important role in the history of beads. People around the world have used glass seed beads for centuries. Explorers and traders introduced these colorful beads to many cultures. They will then adapt into the traditional dress and customs of these cultures. The glass bead making has been a highly valued skill since its invention. Bead-making methods that were developed by Europeans are still in use today. Many of these techniques are secret and not to be disclosed by workers. Eventually, mass production made glass beads available to everyone.

People have been fascinated by beads ever since humans first put a shell or a bone on a string. The art of making and using beads remains popular throughout the world. Beads have brought the world closer together in ancient times and in the present. A lot of wholesale beads jewelry or wholesale bead and jewelry stores are available online for purchasing and some of them even provide the services of unique home-made designed beads jewelry in varying materials.

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The Significance of Charm Beads Throughout History

For many millennia, charm beads have been worn in the form of various symbols depending on the prevalent belief systems of the time. Even today, people wear jewelry strung with amulets meant to ward off bad luck or evil spirits. Modern charm beads are made from a variety of materials including gems, Murano glass, gold, silver or other precious metals. In ancient times, charm beads were sculpted from animal bones, shells and clay.

Archeologists have found adornments in Africa from about 75,000 years ago that were likely worn just as later amulets were. These particular artifacts were made from shell.

Cultures worldwide have used amulets in jewelry for deep spiritual purposes. In Egypt, charms were used not only as symbols of good luck and faith, they were buried with the dead so that the gods would recognize the deceased individual in the afterlife.

Christians wore charms resembling fish in order to identify themselves to others of the same faith. Knights from Medieval times wore amulets because they believed such charms would protect them in battle.

In more recent history, charm beads have been worn on bracelets. This trend has also taken a strong hold on cultures around the globe. One of the most notably wearers of charm bracelets was Queen Victoria, the sovereign of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the 19th century. It was Queen Victoria who made charm bracelets popular among the noble classes of Europe.

In the 1950s and 1960s, teenagers in America began wearing charm beads to symbolize important events in their lives. This trend was revitalized after the year 2000 and is prevalent in modern society. These days, there are charms to represent belief systems, hobbies, popular media, vocations, and so much more.

There is a growing trend in wearing European charm bracelets for which endless charm beads can be collected. The bracelets are interchangeable which allows the wearer to put on different charms at any given time. The versatility and unique quality of this jewelry is what draws an ever growing number of people. In addition to bracelets, the charms can be worn on rings, earrings, and necklaces.

In 1976, the modern-day charm bracelets were introduced by a Danish company. Currently, there are a number of companies offering a variety of charm jewelry from those geared more towards children to sophisticated pieces made from more expensive materials such as gold and silver.

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French Beaded Flowers – A Brief History

Beaded flowers have been crafted for centuries, but like many other crafts through the ages, it’s early history was not well documented. The techniques were passed through families, each generation teaching the next. The French beaded flower technique is only one of several, and it is not exclusively French, but is believed to have been born in France and in Italy, enjoying great popularity throughout Europe for centuries. It differs greatly from what is known as the Victorian beaded flower in that the wire passes through the beads only once, and the beads are strung on wire and wrapped, not woven.

There was vast production of beaded flowers in Venice during the nineteenth century, and in Victorian times beaded flower sprays and wreaths were often used as wall hangings and memorial wreaths. In the 1800’s a popular women’s magazine showed patterns for French beaded flowers.

Many of the vintage arrangements can still be found, and one can see in the basic components techniques still used today.

During the 1930’s American families decorated their homes with French beaded flowers imported from Europe, but it wasn’t until the 1960’s that the technique itself became popular. Most accounts tell of Virginia Nathanson, a former vaudeville performer, purchasing an arrangement of these beaded flowers, then taking the flowers apart in order to learn the techniques for making them. She taught herself the craft and eventually produced several books of instruction and patterns. With the publication of books by Virginia Nathanson, Virginia Osterland and others, crafters learned to create these lovely flowers, and the technique flourished through the 1970’s. Patterns from these books are still used extensively today.

Currently, creating French beaded flowers has enjoyed a resurgence of popularity, and with the availability of new instructional materials and patterns, we are seeing lots of interest in learning to make them.

The basic techniques are quite simple, although practice is required to become proficient in the craft. Uses for these beaded beauties are many, and they are found often in weddings, as jewelry and displayed as home decor. Traditionally the style of the flowers is quite realistic, following nature’s own blossoms in the garden. Today’s modern crafters, however, enjoying the availability of glass beads and materials in a vast array of colors and textures, are producing more contemporary designs with a fresh and whimsical style.

What great inspiration! Let’s make a beaded flower today!

You can download a free book packed with tips for making the perfect French beaded flower right now. Written by top French beaded flower and Ganutell artist Sharon Foster, it’s more than just a great book for the beginner, it has something for beaders of all levels.

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History Of Ancient Love For Sparkling Jewelry

My love for jewelry has always made me curious about the history of these adornments. Nowadays, the jewelry market has expanded to a dynamic circle including specialized designers, goldsmiths, handmade jewelry makers and gemstone experts. The variety for buying the ornamental jewels is limitless both in terms of materials and designs. It’s a really interesting thought that who really started this trend in the first place, because as long as I know jewelry has always been in vogue never getting out of fashion. As we go back to the earlier signs of life on earth, cave people come to our minds instantly. It is fascinating to know about their lifestyle which was very organic and natural. It is said that the first jewelry piece was found in one of the caves of African continent which was made of shells thousands of years ago. Isn’t this a fascinating discovery! I mean thousands of years ago when people used to live in caves, depended on hunting for their food and used natural coverings like leaves and animal skins; someone thought of adorning themselves with a piece of seashell jewelry.

I mean that is really creative! It was discovered that Egyptians were the first to establish decorative ornaments for their adornment.

The Egyptian era looks like a fantasy tale looking at the pyramids, mummies and sphinx in Cairo. The power of kings was immense which was shown through luxuries gold adornments worn by these kings. Well it is interesting to know that jewelry gathered so much importance in Egyptian era that it was worn by wealthy men even after their death. Egyptians proved to be very creative by adding glass and precious gems to their shiny adornments. The Egyptian necklace and headdress worn by Nefertiti is a classical example of the importance of these jewels in the ancient Egyptian times. If we look at the Mesopotamia history, we open our eyes to extremely creative pieces of classy jewelry. They were quite some designers! They used gold, silver and gemstones in their pieces but the designs are what marvel me the most. Their crowns were designed with engravings of shapes of animals, fruits and leaves.

Such stylized designs are even unique in today’s world! They used to make amulets, collar necklaces, ankle bracelets, jewel-headed pins and cylinder seals. Most of the modern designers take their inspirations from the heavy ornamental styles of Mesopotamian age for their creativity and uniqueness. Looking at some pieces of Greek jewelry, one develops a desire to grab some of their extremely beautiful designs. The spiraled gold earrings from 16th century BC are so well designed that they beat today’s designers easily. It is said that Greeks were masters in making colored ornaments using gemstones and glass. Other materials included gold, ivory, clay and bronze. There jewelry was simpler in design than Egyptians and Mesopotamians and it was not used in day to day routine although they used to wear Evil Eye for protection from super natural powers. Most of their pieces were dedicated to their Gods.

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